Rapid technological advancements have increased exposure to IR, which has been found to be a reason for increased levels of radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS increases membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn causes DNA damage, and finally leads to cell death. In this chapter, we initially discussed the effects of IR and the need for identification of radioprotectors. Chemical radioprotectors like WR-2721 (amifostine), CBLB502, Tempol, monoclonal antibodies like cetuximab, The study aimed to identify the different health hazards and their sources across the oil and gas industry to determine the risks associated with health hazards. Methods: A qualitative approach was employed to identify the different hazards connected with the operational environment. A total of 1000 questionnaires were distributed randomly across the various departments in the Nigerian oil and gas industry, Hair Oil and 327 returned to the research team. The analysis of data was carried out using the SPAS. Results: The result shows that ergonomic hazards were found to be most predominant among the hazards assessed in the industry. Ergonomic hazards are 30%, physical hazards are 26%, 23%, psychosocial hazards are 18%, and biological hazards are 3%. Conclusion: Considering the aims of this study, the hazards that exposed workers to ill-health were identified with their sources in the oil and gas operational environment. Some of the health hazards were identified as having short-term health effects on workers, such as headaches, skin burns, and eye rashes. In contrast, leukemia, asphyxia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are long-term health effects caused by other hazards. Recommendations: Adequate supervision should be imposed on the workers in their workplace, proper hazards assessment should be conducted in the industry, and compulsory medical testing should be carried out on workers always to know their health status.